Icon for: Tony Reames

TONY REAMES

University of Kansas
Years in Grad School: 4

Judges’ Queries and Presenter’s Replies

  • May 21, 2013 | 04:14 p.m.

    Hello,
    Interesting research topic! I am curious about how the magnitude of the UHI you observed in Greenland compares to UHI effects in other systems where power demand also peaks during the winter months?

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 02:49 a.m.

    Hello Professor Gehring, thanks for your question. There is an ongoing UHI study (Hinkel et al. 2003) in Barrow, Alaska that I modeled my study after. They found a stronger winter UHI averaging 2.2 degrees Celsius (1 degree Celsius in Nuuk). While Barrow is smaller than Nuuk, it’s more compact and its primary heating source is natural gas. Nuuk is powered almost entirely by hydro power and most homes have electric or steam heat. Another high-latitude UHI study (Magee et al. 1999) measured the UHI between Fairbanks, Alaska and Eielson Airforce Base. They found an average winter UHI of 1 degree Celsius.

  • May 23, 2013 | 12:34 p.m.

    Thank you, Tony.
    Catherine

  • May 21, 2013 | 06:48 p.m.

    Hello: This is a novel study of urbanization impacts – congratulations! Can you please explain the “cooling island” observation in July? Although there is no demand for heating in the summer months, is there not waste heat still being produced in the urban area as a result of, for example, hot water demands? Thank-you.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 03:02 a.m.

    Hello Professor Culligan, thanks for your question. There are several factors that contribute to the ‘inverse heat island’ or ‘cooling/cold island’. 1) shading effects of buildings, 2) minimal nocturnal heat loss during in high-latitude cities during the summer, 3) warm periods of strong solar forcing, and 4) maritime effects. While heat is still required in these cold regions, urbanization’s effects on the surface energy balance are not enough to overcome these factors. This is quite different from middle and low latitude cities where the UHI is intensified during the summer months as a result of energy use and land use patterns.

  • May 21, 2013 | 07:21 p.m.

    Hello: Great research topic, interesting video, very dramatic intro. I like the use of Greenland as a study area, very interesting idea. However, I have some questions: when you shared your results with your collaborators in Greenland, had they noticed a change in the overall temperature before, or were they completely surprised? Also, did you compare the data collected in Greenland with similar data collected in Kansas? Thank you.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 03:17 a.m.

    Hello Professor Lefticariu, thanks for your question. This was my first solo international research project. It was quite the experience! The staff at Asiaq was very helpful, but somewhat doubtful that I would find anything. Then I began to explain my research method and the Barrow, Alaska study (Hinkel et al. 2003). We then did a few brief calculations in their office and they became believers. As you infer, UHI is not something that is naturally thought about in high-latitude cities, because they are cold, have smaller populations, and are not home to skyscrapers. While I did not compare my results to Kansas, I did compare them to results in Barrow and Fairbanks Alaska. Nuuk’s average winter UHI was 1 degree Celsius (2005-2010) and 0.9 degree Celsius in 2011. Average winter UHIs in Barrow and Fairbanks (Magee et al. 2009) were 2.2 degrees Celsius and 1 degree Celsius, respectively.

  • Icon for: J Yeakley

    J Yeakley

    Judge
    May 21, 2013 | 11:55 p.m.

    Hi Tony. You have a fascinating and very innovative study. I’m wondering how Greenlanders might perceive the possibility of urban warming. Given how cold this region generally is, do they see this as a positive or a negative (or perhaps a mixture)? Thanks, Alan

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 04:43 a.m.

    Hello Professor Yeakley, thanks for your question. I have interviewed both public officials and citizens. Their responses have been quite interesting. While there are many climate change/sustainability conscious individuals in Greenland, others view climate change and global warming as a key to Greenland’s future success and increased independence from Denmark. The possibility of newly discovered fossil fuel resources and the associated economic development are of great importance to the government. When discussing urban warming in Nuuk, one resident had this to say, “Global warming rocks for Greenland, new [vegetable opportunities], fish coming in due to warmer water… people want development. There are a lot of relatively poor people.” There is a lot of talk about the agricultural and employment opportunities in a warmer climate. I attended the First Conference on Arctic Urbanization in August 2012, the major concerns surrounding urbanization were more social then environmental, more than likely due to amount of poverty and large constituency of citizens dependent on the government. On the other hand, I worked with some Greenlandic students during Summer 2012 and they were concerned that from their perspective the government was not doing enough to address warming and other environmental issues. However, I found Greenland to be somewhat progressive in regards to the environment and energy. Nuuk is almost entirely powered by hydro electricity and planners are researching ways to make buildings more energy efficient, which should positively impact (reduce) urban warming.

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Presentation Discussion
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    Katrina McClure

    Guest
    May 20, 2013 | 01:38 p.m.

    Great!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 20, 2013 | 03:37 p.m.

    Thanks Katrina :)

  • Icon for: Joseph Hamm

    Joseph Hamm

    Trainee
    May 20, 2013 | 03:45 p.m.

    The research is fascinating and I am curious if you could talk a little bit about whether Air Conditioning is used during the summer months. You state that the strongest heating effects of the urban island are during the winter months when people are most likely to heat their homes. I am wondering though if you wouldn’t see a similar heating effect in the summer when Air Conditioners are running. It seems to me that they would also have the capability of creating the heating effects you are talking about but it doesn’t seem that your data show that increase in the urban heat island.

    I know very little about this area and even less about Greenland itself so my question may be naive.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 20, 2013 | 04:02 p.m.

    Hi Joseph, thanks for your question. Mid- and low-latitude cities do exhibit strong heat islands during the summer months resulting from a combination of land use patterns, solar influences, and high energy demand for air conditioning. In high-latitude cities, like Nuuk, Greenland, during the summer air conditioning is not needed because temperatures remain low (not as low as winter) thus energy demand and loss into the atmosphere is lower than during winter. There are also a lot of social implications associated with the urban heat island effect, such as, inequalities in the cost burden of heating and air resulting from lower levels of energy efficiencies in low-income households. The US EPA provides a wealth of information about heat island impacts and mitigation http://www.epa.gov/hiri/.

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    Joseph Hamm

    Trainee
    May 20, 2013 | 04:09 p.m.

    Thank you, Tony, for the work and the response. Totally answers my question.

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    Steve Jr.

    Guest
    May 20, 2013 | 04:01 p.m.

    Wow that was very well done!! Didn’t realize there was that much correlation as far a changing the temperature. You usually only hear about the amount of pollution that is contributed by humans in an environment.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 20, 2013 | 09:19 p.m.

    Thanks for your comments Steve. Yes, human activity contributes to increased pollution, but temperature increases are also experienced due to heat loss from inefficient buildings.

  • Icon for: Joane Nagel

    Joane Nagel

    Faculty
    May 20, 2013 | 06:08 p.m.

    Great video, Tony! How was this research received in Greenland? Was the heat island effect on the radar of the Greenlanders you presented to? Is melting permafrost an issue in Nuuk?

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 20, 2013 | 09:30 p.m.

    Thanks Joane! This was a fun experience. I have shared the video and poster with several contacts in Greenland and the Arctic Urbanization Conference organizers. When I requested data from Asiaq, they were somewhat shocked that I was studying UHI in Nuuk. Melting permafrost is not a problem. When I initially started the project, I thought this was going to be an issue. Nuuk is south of the permafrost zone.

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    Jacob Carter

    Trainee
    May 20, 2013 | 07:18 p.m.

    This is very fascinating research, Tony! I wonder if the urban heat island effect is strong enough to alter plant communities in surrounding areas?

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 20, 2013 | 09:32 p.m.

    Thanks Jacob! Nuuk’s ground cover is more rocky than vegetated. But for the vegetated areas that do exist, this is a very interesting question.

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    Thomas Wallin

    Trainee
    May 20, 2013 | 09:35 p.m.

    Hi,
    Your video made it very easy to understand your work and you communicated your findings well.


    One question I have is about the wind’s effect. How did you account for this? It seems a strong wind would be able to remove the heat and disrupt the heat island. Perhaps this can also explain the seasonal trends you notice as one season might be windier than another.

    This leads me to wonder which factor of urbanization contributes the most to these heat islands. Is it that there are more human activity in these areas, or is it the fact that urbanization involves building structures which can block the flow of air and prevent the heat from being dissipated quickly?

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 11:14 a.m.

    Thanks Thomas! You’re correct about the effect of wind speed on the heat island. The heat island diminishes with increasing wind velocity, because of increased mixing and the heat is dispersed up and away. To account for that, this study looks at days under “calm” wind conditions. Days where average wind speeds were 3.5 m/s or greater were not factored into the UHI calculation. In larger cities, like those in the US, the impact of building construction and height on wind is of greater concern than in Arctic cities where building heights are typically lower.

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    Eric Kent

    Trainee
    May 23, 2013 | 01:47 p.m.

    Another interesting aspect of the UHI – windspeed connection is that the differences in temperature between a city and outlying areas can actually drive a local thermal circulation. It would be interesting to analyze if wind patterns are changing as Nuuk grows.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 23, 2013 | 03:28 p.m.

    That is interesting Eric. I’ve seen some other studies looking at the impact of UHI on wind and precipitation. Other studies have also investigated climatological impacts on surrounding cities.

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    Stephanie Luff

    Trainee
    May 21, 2013 | 12:03 a.m.

    Great video, seems we had similar ideas for an intro .

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 11:06 a.m.

    Thanks Stephanie!

  • Icon for: Laurel James

    Laurel James

    Trainee
    May 21, 2013 | 12:08 a.m.

    Very interesting research and I loved the video!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 11:06 a.m.

    Thanks Laurel!

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    Tazeia Wilson

    Guest
    May 21, 2013 | 01:15 a.m.

    Hope you receive it.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 11:06 a.m.

    Thanks Tazeia!

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    Bittle

    Guest
    May 21, 2013 | 12:03 p.m.

    The presentation was easy to understand and I loved the video. You did an awesome job Reames!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 12:08 p.m.

    Thanks for your continued support Ms. Bittle!

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    michael adams

    Guest
    May 21, 2013 | 01:22 p.m.

    Best of luck! Great Job Tony!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 02:54 p.m.

    Thanks Michael!

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    Anita Maltbia

    Guest
    May 21, 2013 | 03:53 p.m.

    Hi, Tony. Very interesting work. Congratulations on a thought-provoking clip!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 04:01 p.m.

    Thanks Mrs. Maltbia!

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    Joseph

    Guest
    May 21, 2013 | 04:59 p.m.

    I got you covered Reames!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 05:40 p.m.

    Thanks Joe!

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    Antonio Simon

    Guest
    May 21, 2013 | 06:23 p.m.

    Good luck! Really fascinating video!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 21, 2013 | 07:43 p.m.

    Thanks Antonio!

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    Dijon Rolle

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 12:15 a.m.

    Well done. Enjoyed the visuals and the content.The Malcolm X reading glasses were also a plus.(BTW I’m not just saying this because you’re my best friend). Proud of you. Aggie Pride!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 04:49 a.m.

    Thanks so much bestie!

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    Sherry

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 12:15 a.m.

    Loved the easy to understand presentation and the video. You present very well Reames! I hope you win the scholarship man.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 04:50 a.m.

    Thanks for the support Sherry!

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    Sabrina Roary

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 12:15 a.m.

    Great job Tony I am so proud of my classmate!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 04:50 a.m.

    Thanks for the support Sabrina!

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    Diana Johnson

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 12:16 a.m.

    Very good Tony! I’ve attended several workshops on the UHI effects and your video is right on point.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 04:51 a.m.

    Thanks for the support Diana, UHI has a host of environmental, social, economic, and health concerns, that should be discussed and understood to inform our policy and development decisions.

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    Walker Perryman

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 12:18 a.m.

    You did a awesome job!!!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 04:51 a.m.

    Thanks for your support Walker!

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    Brian Elliott

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 09:31 a.m.

    Tony:
    Great Job. Proud of you!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 02:19 p.m.

    Thanks for the support B!

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    Linda Williams

    Trainee
    May 22, 2013 | 11:12 a.m.

    Hi Tony. Great job! The presentation and video were easy to understand and interesting. Do you know if the government of Nuuk or Greenland are taking any steps to address heat loss from buildings, such as new building codes?

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 02:23 p.m.

    Thanks for the support Linda. Nuuk’s local government created a new master plan for their city center. They will demolish old inefficient buildings and replace them with more efficient and environmentally sustainable structures. So this is is an issue being addressed. Also, newer developments in Nuuk (their suburbs) are being built more efficiently. The government-owned utility is also addressing energy efficiency and energy conservation issues.

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    Dr, Ledley

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 11:45 a.m.

    Great job in making the topic understandable and explaining why looking a Greenland was a way to isolate the anthropogenic influences. Good luck

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 02:19 p.m.

    Thanks for the support Dr. Ledley!

  • May 22, 2013 | 12:47 p.m.

    Great presentation, Tony!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 02:23 p.m.

    Thanks for the support Lindsay!

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    Brian Rumsey

    Associate
    May 22, 2013 | 02:34 p.m.

    Really sharp presentation! Good work!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 03:05 p.m.

    Thanks for the support Brian!

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    Paula Smith

    Trainee
    May 22, 2013 | 05:04 p.m.

    Great presentation T. Reames. You mentioned meltiing permaforst is not an issue today, but do you forsee future issues as the permafrost changes familar landscapes to Nuuk and its people?

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 05:27 p.m.

    Thanks for your support and question Paula! Nuuk is south of the Greenland permafrost zone, but cities further north that are also experiencing increased growth and urbanization (Maniitsoq, Sisimiut, and Aasiaat) should be aware of the potential impacts on permafrost.

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    Eric harris

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 05:57 p.m.

    Great work tony. Much luck with everything.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 07:31 p.m.

    Thanks for checking it our Eric!

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    Terrance Jones

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 06:14 p.m.

    Excellent job T! The graph showing the correlation helped me understand the jargon. I have zero background in weather but I have some knowledge in research. Good job!! A+ nice video

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 07:31 p.m.

    Thanks Terrance, for supporting the video!

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    Derrick Anderson

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 07:43 p.m.

    I love it!!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 07:47 p.m.

    Thanks for the support Derrick!

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    Carson Poe

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 09:41 p.m.

    Tony,
    Fantastic work. Really great research.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 11:22 p.m.

    Thanks for the support Carson!

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    Jason Sternberg

    Guest
    May 22, 2013 | 10:49 p.m.

    Great work as usual, Tony.

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 22, 2013 | 11:21 p.m.

    Thanks for supporting Jason!

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    Ashley Zung

    Associate
    May 23, 2013 | 01:33 a.m.

    Great presentation on a topic that hasn’t received a whole lot of attention and deserves a closer look. Nice job and good luck, Tony!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 23, 2013 | 02:22 a.m.

    Thanks Ashley, I’ve sent the video to some folks in Greenland. Waiting to hear back.

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    Donte Shannon

    Guest
    May 23, 2013 | 07:14 a.m.

    That was great Tony! Wow!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 23, 2013 | 08:49 a.m.

    Thanks for the support Donte!

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    Lisbon Williams

    Guest
    May 23, 2013 | 09:15 a.m.

    That’s awesome! Really interesting research!!!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 23, 2013 | 10:34 a.m.

    Thanks for the support Lisbon!

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    Victoria Walsey

    Trainee
    May 23, 2013 | 10:31 a.m.

    Awesome and compelling! Great Job!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 23, 2013 | 10:35 a.m.

    Thanks for the support Vicky!

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    Eric Kent

    Trainee
    May 23, 2013 | 01:38 p.m.

    Nice job. Do you know if anyone has found this same pattern in any other larger cities at high latitudes?

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 23, 2013 | 03:29 p.m.

    Thanks Eric! There is an ongoing UHI study (Hinkel et al. 2003) in Barrow, Alaska that I modeled my study after. They found a stronger winter UHI averaging 2.2 degrees Celsius (1 degree Celsius in Nuuk). While Barrow is smaller than Nuuk, it’s more compact and its primary heating source is natural gas. Nuuk is powered almost entirely by hydro power and most homes have electric or steam heat. Another high-latitude UHI study (Magee et al. 1999) measured the UHI between Fairbanks, Alaska and Eielson Airforce Base. They found an average winter UHI of 1 degree Celsius.

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    Eric Kent

    Trainee
    May 23, 2013 | 03:34 p.m.

    Thanks for the info Tony!

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    H Huggins

    Guest
    May 24, 2013 | 12:03 a.m.

    Great information, I’m proud of you!!!!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 26, 2013 | 05:21 p.m.

    Thanks for watching!

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    Kamien Faison

    Guest
    May 24, 2013 | 10:07 a.m.

    Loved it!!!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 26, 2013 | 05:21 p.m.

    Thanks for watching!

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    Craig Stokes

    Guest
    May 24, 2013 | 02:34 p.m.

    Looks great!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 26, 2013 | 05:21 p.m.

    Thanks for watching!

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    Marilu Goodyear

    Guest
    May 26, 2013 | 05:27 p.m.

    Great research!

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    Tony Reames

    Presenter
    May 26, 2013 | 05:29 p.m.

    Thanks for the support Marilu!

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    Malik Lange

    Guest
    May 28, 2013 | 07:34 a.m.

    great work, keep up the good work :D

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